Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born February 11, 1934) is a former Panamanian politician and soldier. About the book: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0399135170/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0399135170&linkCode=as2&tag=tra0c7-20&linkId=258c2a7c67e40427a560bb01bd23cdc9
He was military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989. In the 1989 invasion of Panama by the United States he was removed from power, captured, detained as a prisoner of war, and flown to the United States. Noriega was tried on eight counts of drug trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering in April 1992.
Noriega's U.S. prison sentence ended in September 2007; pending the outcome of extradition requests by both Panama and France, for convictions in absentia for murder in 1995 and money laundering in 1999. France was granted its extradition request in April 2010. He arrived in Paris on April 27, 2010, and after a re-trial as a condition of the extradition, he was found guilty and sentenced to seven years in jail in July 2010. A conditional release was granted on September 23, 2011, for Noriega to be extradited to serve 20 years in Panama. He arrived in Panama on December 11, 2011.
Born in Panama City, Noriega was a career soldier, receiving much of his education at the Military School of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. He also received intelligence and counterintelligence training at the School of the Americas at the U.S. Army's Fort Gulick in the Panama Canal Zone in 1967, as well as a course in psychological operations (psyops) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. He was commissioned in the Panama National Guard in 1967 and promoted to lieutenant in 1968. In the power struggle that followed, including a failed coup attempt in 1969, Noriega supported Omar Torrijos. He received a promotion to lieutenant colonel and was appointed chief of military intelligence by Torrijos. Noriega claims that, following Torrijos' instructions, he negotiated an amnesty for about 400 defeated guerrilla fighters, enabling them to return from exile in Honduras and Costa Rica.
Torrijos died in a plane accident on July 31, 1981. Colonel Roberto Díaz Herrera, a former associate of Noriega, claimed that the actual cause for the accident was a bomb and that Noriega was behind the incident.
Omar Torrijos was succeeded as Commander of the Panamanian National Guard by Colonel Florencio Flores Aguilar. One year later, Flores was succeeded by Rubén Darío Paredes, and Noriega became chief of staff. The guard was renamed the Panamanian Defense Forces. Paredes resigned as commander to run for the presidency, ceding his post as commander of the forces to Noriega.
Although the relationship did not become contractual until 1967, Noriega worked with the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from the late 1950s until the 1980s. In 1988 grand juries in Tampa and Miami indicted him on U.S. federal drug charges.
The 1988 Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations concluded: "The saga of Panama's General Manuel Antonio Noriega represents one of the most serious foreign policy failures for the United States. Throughout the 1970s and the 1980s, Noriega was able to manipulate U.S. policy toward his country, while skillfully accumulating near-absolute power in Panama. It is clear that each U.S. government agency which had a relationship with Noriega turned a blind eye to his corruption and drug dealing, even as he was emerging as a key player on behalf of the Medellín Cartel (a member of which was notorious Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar)." Noriega was allowed to establish "the hemisphere's first 'narcokleptocracy'". One of the large financial institutions that he was able to use to launder money was the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), which was shut down at the end of the Cold War by the FBI. Noriega shared his cell with ex-BCCI executives in the facility known as "Club Fed."
In the 1988 U.S. presidential election, Democratic candidate Michael Dukakis highlighted this history in a campaign commercial attacking his opponent, Vice President (and former CIA Director) George H. W. Bush, for his close relationship with "Panamanian drug lord Noriega."
pretty incredible he was a cia asset up until at least sep 1986 where he met oliver north in london. iran contra broke 2 months later!
by 1989 suddenly the guy is worse than hitler, even though the u.s. looked the other way, if not HELPED him smuggle dope with the Colombians and who knows what else.
if you're a dictator and your country has a natural resource, the u.s. wont care how tyrannical and corrupt your government is. but if you threaten to nationalize that resource, like noriega/tarijos/chavez/roldos did, theyll take you out one way or another.
No, you are not going down, you are not descending stairs, flying off of a cliff or falling into a well. You are traversing the surface of a globe for which there is no "down" designation. While I'm at it, the contraction for "you are" is "you're" and my name is not "dick" (sic) and even if it was it would be capitalized.
Gandalf as a Maia (named Olórin) before leaving the Undying Lands.
Originally called Olórin , he was accounted as the wisest of the Maiar (with the possible exception of Melian). He was a Maia of Manwë and Varda. He also served under two other Valar, such as Irmo and Nienna. When the Valar decided to send the order of the Istari (also known as Wizards) to Middle-earth, to counsel and assist all those in Middle-earth who opposed the Dark Lord Sauron, Manwë and Varda decided to include Olórin among the five who were sent.
At first, Olórin was nervous and described himself as too weak and too afraid of Sauron. Manwë understood, and told him that that was one main reason why he should go, to overcome that fear. Thus, he insisted that Olórin should go as the third, but Varda convinced him not to include Olórin as the third, but as the second. Olórin agreed, and prepared for his departure from the Undying Lands with the other four wizards.
Arrival in Middle-earth.
When he arrived to Middle-earth, he received Narya, the ring of fire, from Círdan the Shipwright. Olórin, renamed Gandalf , spent many centuries walking among the elves as a stranger, learning from them and teaching them. He later revealed himself as one of the Istari, and eventually became known as the wisest of and most powerful of that order. He joined the White Council, which was formed to investigate a dark power in Dol Guldur, of which Galadriel wanted him to become the leader, yet Saruman came to lead the Council instead of him. Although Saruman was initially more powerful and more knowledgeable about many matters regarding Sauron and the Rings of Power, and was head of the White Council before the War of the Ring, he later grew jealous and afraid of Gandalf,  which was the reason of his betrayal.